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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 57-62

Protein expression of metastasis-related genes in human bladder carcinoma

1 Pathology Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
2 Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Egypt
3 Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Sonia L. El-Sharkawy
Pathology Department, National Research Center, 12622 Cairo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Background/aim The discovery of genetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that accompany tumor formation has encouraged the search for genes that may promote or suppress tumor metastasis. This study aimed to investigate, by immunohistochemical analysis, protein expression of the metastasis-related genes metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and nm-23 in human bladder carcinoma. Their role as prognostic factors against established clinicopathological variables in bladder carcinoma was evaluated. Materials and methods A total of 60 specimens of bladder carcinoma were obtained by radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. In addition, 10 tissue samples from normal mucosa adjacent to tumors were examined and served as controls. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2 and nm-23 was correlated with histological grade, tumor stage, lymph node metastases, and the presence or absence of bilharziasis. Results MMP-2 was expressed in 63% of patients with human bladder carcinoma and was shown to be positively correlated with histological grade, lymph node metastasis, and tumor stage. In contrast, nm-23 was expressed in 61% of patients with carcinoma but with insignificant correlation between its expression and the previous variables. Both proteins showed insignificant correlation with the presence or absence of bilharziasis. The study revealed that nm-23 expression was nonsignificantly correlated with MMP-2 expression and that nm-23 does not behave as a metastasis suppressor gene in bladder carcinoma. Conclusion MMP-2 overexpression seems to be related to more aggressive tumors with advanced stages and grades; therefore, it may be used not only as a promoting prognostic marker for bladder carcinoma but also as a novel target for clinical therapy.

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