Osteogenic potential of human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration of rabbit
Eman E.A. Mohammed1, Mohamed El-Zawahry2, Abdel Razik H Farrag3, Nahla N Abdel Aziz4, Nourhan Abou-Shahba1, Marwa Mahmoud1, Wael A El-Mohandes5, Mahmoud A El-Farmawy6, Alice K Abdel Aleem MB, BCh, MD 7
1 Department of Medical Molecular Genetics; Stem Cell Research Group, Medical Research Centre of Excellence, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
2 Department of Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
3 Department of Pathology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
4 Department of Medical Molecular Genetics, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
5 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
6 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, El-Helal Hospital, Cairo, Egypt
7 Department of Medical Molecular Genetics; Stem Cell Research Group, Medical Research Centre of Excellence, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt; Neurology and Neuroscience Department, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar
Alice K Abdel Aleem
Department of Medical Molecular Genetics, Human Genetics and Genome Research Division, Stem Cell Research Group, Medical Research Centre of Excellence, National Research Centre, Al Bouhouth Street, Dokki, PO Box 12622, Cairo, Egypt
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background/aim Human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hDP-MSCs) offer a promising source of progenitor cells for regenerative medicine and bone tissue engineering. Cranial defects are common complications that can arise secondary to trauma, surgery, or infection. This study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation potential of hMSCs isolated from dental pulp of third molar teeth in vitro cultures and the bone regenerative capacity of hDP-MSCs transplanted into induced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) defect in rabbits.
Patients and methods hDP-MSCs were isolated from third molar teeth and cultured. Alizarin staining was performed to assess the osteogenic differentiation at the 14th and 28th days. The therapeutic potential of hDP-MSCs in craniofacial bone defects was investigated in the left side of the rabbits’ TMJ. The transplanted cells involved three groups: the osteogenic differentiated DP-MSCs (O), undifferentiated MSCs (M), and control group (cell-free matrix) (C). Cells were loaded on gel foam. Eighteen rabbits were used and sacrificed at subsequent three time points, 4, 6, and 9 weeks, after transplantation, with six rabbits/each time point and two rabbits/each cell group. Histopathological studies were applied to evaluate the healing potential of hDP-MSCs in the induced rabbit TMJ defect.
Results hDP-MSCs showed a high proliferative potential and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Histological results demonstrated a timely correlated mandibular defects’ repair in all the experimental groups, including the control group, with more enhanced bone healing effect for the osteogenic differentiated DP-MSCs.
Conclusion hDP-MSCs possess high proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. Histological observations revealed the osteogenic differentiated DP-MSCs have higher bone healing potential than the undifferentiated DP-MSCs at 9 weeks after transplantation, and gel foam promotes bone formation in the control group. The bone regenerative potential of osteogenic differentiated DP-MSCs revealed a significant capacity when implanted in rabbit TMJ defect. Hence, hDP-MSCs could be a promising source for craniofacial bone regeneration.