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   2012| January-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 21, 2014

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Capillaria philippinensis: a cause of chronic diarrhea in Upper Egypt
Nadia Abd_ElSalam, Sahar M. Hassany, Ahmed Medhat, Howida I. Hussein, Hubert E. Blum
January-June 2012, 7(1):10-13
Background/aim Capillaria philippinensis is a rare zoonotic intestinal parasite that is endemic in Philippines and Thailand. A few cases have been reported in Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan. The outcome of C. philippinensis may be fatal if untreated in due time. C. philippinensis is an emerging infection in Egypt as a cause of chronic diarrhea; thus, we carried out this study to determine the presence and frequency of C. philippinensis in patients with chronic diarrhea in Upper Egypt. Patients and methods The study included 113 patients with chronic diarrhea attending the Department of Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology, Assiut University Hospital. All patients were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations including stool examination, complete blood count, and assessment of blood urea and serum creatinine, serum albumin, and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium). Also, gastroduodenoscopy, duodenal biopsy for histopathological examination, and colonoscopy were performed for every patient. Results C. philippinensis was reported in seven patients. All of them were young female patients with severe chronic diarrhea, associated with vomiting, abdominal pain, anorexia, borborygmi, weight loss, and ankle edema; three patients had mild ascites. The seven patients had hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, marked hyokalemia, and hypoalbuminemia. The diagnosis of C. philippinensis was established on finding the characteristic egg of C. philippinensis in the stool of all cases; histopathological examination of the duodenal biopsies indicated heavy cellular infiltration around the adult worm in one of them and larvae in another one. Six patients recovered completely with albendazole treatment 200 mg twice daily for 21 days, whereas one patient died of heart failure because of severe hypoalbuminemia and hypokalemia. Conclusion Capillariasis is one of the parasitic causes of chronic nonbloody diarrhea in patients in Upper Egypt.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Evaluation of some histochemical and immunohistochemical criteria of round cell tumors of bone
Eman M. S. Muhammad, Zeinab H. El-badawi, Sana S. Kroosh, Hassan H. Noaman
January-June 2012, 7(1):21-32
Background/aims The differential diagnosis of round cell tumors of bone (RCTB), Ewing sarcoma, smallcell osteosarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma, primary bone lymphoma, and multiple myeloma still remains a challenge. Given the significant differences in treatment, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate some histochemical and immunohistochemical criteria of RCTB. Participants and methods Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), CD99, CD138, osteocalcin, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA) were evaluated in 113 patients with RCTB. Results PAS was positive in neoplastic cells of all Ewing sarcomas, 27% of osteosarcomas, 92% of chondrosarcomas, all osteoblastomas and chondroblastomas, and the osteoid tissue of all osteosarcomas and osteoblastomas. CD99 was positive in all Ewing sarcomas, in 11, 4, and 11% of osteoblastomas, multiple myelomas, and bone lymphomas, respectively. CD99 was higher in Ewing sarcoma than in other RCTB (Po0.0001). Osteocalcin was positive in neoplastic cells of all osteosarcomas, osteoblastomas, and 20% of chondroblastomas, 84, and 78% of osteoid of osteosarcomas and osteoblastomas, respectively. CD138 was positive in all multiple myelomas, 12% of Ewing sarcomas, 20% of osteosarcomas, 44% of osteoblastomas, 8% of chondrosarcomas, and 40% of chondroblastomas. CD138 was higher in multiple myeloma (Po0.0001) than in other RCTB. LCA positivity was higher (Po0.01) in bone lymphomas (100%) than in multiple myelomas (73%). Conclusion PAS negativity excludes multiple myeloma and bone lymphoma from other RCTB that could be differentiated by LCA and CD138. CD99 positivity confirms the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma. PAS could detect areas of osteoid in osteosarcoma and osteoblastoma. Osteocalcin suggests an osteogenic tumor origin: osteosarcoma/osteoblastoma. Double negativity of CD99 and osteocalcin suggests a chondrogenic tumor origin: chondrosarcoma/chondroblastoma.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Platelet and neutrophil cross-talk-mediating cancer growth and metastasis in patients with urinary bladder cancer
Bothina S. Madkour, Iman W. Bekheet, Iman Mahgoub, Maha M. Samy, Mamdouh Roshdy, Faiza M. Essawy
January-June 2012, 7(1):1-9
Background/Aim The initial selectin-dependent events that mediate tumor cell tethering to platelets, leukocytes, and vascular endothelium can regulate the extravasation and colonization of metastatic cells into distant tissues. We aimed to clarify the role of selectin-selectin ligand interactions in tumor growth and progression in patients with bladder cancer. Patients and methods Thirty patients with bladder cancer were the participants in this study classified as follows: locally invasive group (n = 10), urinary bladder cancer group with regional lymph node involvement (n = 10), and urinary bladder cancer group with regional lymph nodes and distant metastasis (n = 10). Flow cytometry was used to determine both the platelet surface expression of P-selectin (CD62P) and the neutrophil surface expression of PSGL-1 (CD162), whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the assay of soluble P-selectin. Results Neutrophil PSGL-1 expression among the different groups studied was not statistically significant. However, there was enhanced platelet activation as evidenced by increased platelet surface expression of P-selectin together with an increase in its soluble form, which was more prominent with advancement of the disease, especially in patients with distant metastasis. Also, a strong positive correlation was found between platelet P-selectin and its soluble form with the tumor grading. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that both P-selectin and platelet count are significant independent determinants for the stage of bladder cancer, suggesting augmentation of P-selectin-ligand interaction. Conclusion These data preclude that disease progression in patients with bladder cancer is dependent on the complex interaction between P-selectin and its ligand. Targeting of these molecules may represent a unique approach to tumor therapy and prevention of metastasis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Lipid profile among cirrhotic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma in Upper Egypt
Khairy H. Morsy, Mohamed A.A. Ghaliony, Mohammad A. Kobeisy
January-June 2012, 7(1):33-37
Background/aim An impaired lipid metabolism is often observed in patients with chronic liver diseases. This study was carried out to determine the lipid profile in cirrhotic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to determine whether it relates to the severity of cirrhosis in Upper Egypt. Patients and methods In an analytical cross-sectional study, 74 patients with cirrhosis and 36 patients with cirrhosis and HCC (cases) and 65 age-matched and sex-matched healthy individuals (control) were studied from the Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology Department and Internal Medicine Department, Assiut University Hospital. For all the participants, the following was carried out: clinical evaluation, abdominal ultrasound (US) examination, and laboratory investigations including the lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)]. Results In cirrhotic patients with and without HCC, there was a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and HDL levels compared with the control group. Comparison of the lipid profile with the severity of cirrhosis indicated that serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL but not HDL levels decreased linearly with progression of liver damage (Child C vs. Child A). The HDL level was significantly lower in cirrhotic patients with HCC than in cirrhotic patients without HCC. Conclusion The lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL levels) is impaired in cirrhotic patients with and without HCC. The lipid profile (but not HDL) is inversely correlated with the severity of cirrhosis. The HDL level is significantly lower in cirrhotic patients with HCC than in cirrhotic patients without HCC.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Effect of a health education program on the lifestyle of adults with a high diabetes risk score in the Abo-Hammad city, Sharkia Governorate
Sohair A. Hagag
January-June 2012, 7(1):14-20
Background/aim Diabetes has emerged as a global health problem. The diabetes risk score is used to identify how high a risk an individual has of developing diabetes. The diabetes risk score will help individuals to rapidly and easily determine their chance of developing diabetes and, accordingly, action can be taken. The present study aimed to determine the diabetes risk score among adults in the Abo-Hammad city, Sharkia Governorate, as well as to implement and determine the outcome of a health education program on the lifestyle of adults with a high diabetes risk score. Participants and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on 282 adults of both sexes, 40-64 years of age, in the Abo-Hammad city, Sharkia Governorate. The questionnaire administered included some sociodemographic items, a diabetes type II risk assessment form, and measurements such as BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and random blood sugar. A health education program was implemented and evaluated after 3 months. Results It was found that 40.4% of adults aged 40-64 years had a high diabetic risk score. Men had a high diabetes risk score (32.2%) compared with women (46.1%), with a high significant difference (P = 0.019). The lifestyle health education program had a significant effect on individuals with high diabetes risk scores in terms of a reduction in the consumption of animal fat, shift to the use of vegetable oil, and also a decrease in the consumption of salt. Conclusion A lifestyle health education program can be effective for adults with a high diabetic risk score. Further researcher is needed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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